What are the symptoms of bacteria-free infective endocarditis (IE)?

Updated: Jan 03, 2019
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Rarely observed today, the bacteria-free state of IE is one in which patients have multiple negative blood culture results in the presence of severe congestive heart failure, renal failure, multiple sterile emboli, massive splenomegaly, severe anemia, brown facial pigmentation, bilateral thigh pain, and massive leg edema. These patients are usually afebrile. This process appears to indicate prolonged and unchecked stimulation of the immune system.

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