What are the risk factors for infective endocarditis (IE)?

Updated: Jan 03, 2019
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

The most significant risk factor for IE is residual valvular damage caused by a previous attack of endocarditis. [26, 20]

Many possible risk factors for the development of pacemaker IE have been described, including diabetes mellitus, age, and use of anticoagulants and corticosteroids. The evidence for these is conflicting. The major risk factor is probably surgical intervention to any part of the pacemaker system, especially elective battery replacements. The rate of infection associated with battery replacements is approximately 5 times that of the initial implantation (6.5% vs 1.4%).

Other significant risk factors for pacemaker IE include the development of a postoperative hematoma, the inexperience of the surgeon, and a preceding temporary transvenous pacing.


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