Which procedures can cause bacteremia in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis (IE)?

Updated: Jan 03, 2019
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

Bacteremia can result from various invasive procedures, ranging from oral surgery to sclerotherapy of esophageal varices to genitourinary surgeries to various abdominal operations. The potential for invasive procedures to produce a bacteremia varies greatly. Procedures, rates, and organisms are as follows:

  • Endoscopy - Rate of 0-20%; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), streptococci, diphtheroids

  • Colonoscopy - Rate of 0-20%; Escherichia coli, Bacteroides species

  • Barium enema - Rate of 0-20%; enterococci, aerobic and anaerobic gram-negative rods

  • Dental extractions - Rate of 40-100%; S viridans

  • Transurethral resection of the prostate - Rate of 20-40%; coliforms, enterococci, S aureus

  • Transesophageal echocardiography - Rate of 0-20%; S viridans, anaerobic organisms, streptococci


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