Which procedures can cause bacteremia in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis (IE)?

Updated: Jan 03, 2019
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Bacteremia can result from various invasive procedures, ranging from oral surgery to sclerotherapy of esophageal varices to genitourinary surgeries to various abdominal operations. The potential for invasive procedures to produce a bacteremia varies greatly. Procedures, rates, and organisms are as follows:

  • Endoscopy - Rate of 0-20%; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), streptococci, diphtheroids

  • Colonoscopy - Rate of 0-20%; Escherichia coli, Bacteroides species

  • Barium enema - Rate of 0-20%; enterococci, aerobic and anaerobic gram-negative rods

  • Dental extractions - Rate of 40-100%; S viridans

  • Transurethral resection of the prostate - Rate of 20-40%; coliforms, enterococci, S aureus

  • Transesophageal echocardiography - Rate of 0-20%; S viridans, anaerobic organisms, streptococci

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