What is the pathogenesis of pacemaker infective endocarditis (IE)?

Updated: Jan 03, 2019
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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The pathogenesis of pacemaker IE is similar. Shortly after implantation, the development of a fibrin-platelet thrombus (similar to the nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis described above) involves the generator box and conducting leads. After 1 week, the connective tissue proliferates, partially embedding the leads in the wall of the vein and endocardium. This layer may offer partial protection against infection during a bacteremia.

Bacteremia (either spontaneous or due to an invasive procedure) infects the sterile fibrin-platelet vegetation described above. BSIs develop from various extracardiac types of infection, such as pneumonias or pyelonephritis, but most commonly from gingival disease. Of those with high-grade gingivitis, 10% have recurrent transient bacteremias (usually streptococcal species). Most cases of subacute disease are secondary to the bacteremias that develop from the activities of daily living (eg, brushing teeth, bowel movements).

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