What is nosocomial infective endocarditis (NIE)?

Updated: Jan 03, 2019
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

NIE is defined as an infection that manifests 48 hours after the patient is hospitalized or that is associated with a hospital, based on a procedure performed within 4 weeks of clinical disease onset. The term healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (HCIE) is preferable to NIE, since it is inclusive of all sites that deliver patient care, such as hemodialysis centers. The term NIE should be applied to cases of IE acquired in the hospital. An appropriate alternative term would be iatrogenic IE.

Two types of NIE have been described. The right-sided variety affects a valve that has been injured by placement of an intravascular line (eg, Swan-Ganz catheter). Subsequently, the valve is infected by a nosocomial bacteremia. The second type develops in a previously damaged valve and is more likely to occur on the left side. S aureus has been the predominant pathogen of NIE/HCIE since the recent prevalence of intravascular devices. Enterococci are second most commonly isolated pathogens. These usually arise from a genitourinary source.


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