Where does infective endocarditis (IE) due to infections of implantable pacemakers occur?

Updated: Jan 03, 2019
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Analogous to PVE are infections of implantable pacemakers and cardioverter-defibrillators. Usually, these devices are infected within a few months of implantation. Infection of pacemakers includes that of the generator pocket (the most common), infection of the proximal leads, and infection of the portions of the leads in direct contact with the endocardium.

This last category represents true pacemaker IE, is the least common infectious complication of pacemakers (0.5% of implanted pacemakers), and is the most challenging to treat. Of pacemaker infections, 75% are produced by staphylococci, both coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive.

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