What causes prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE)?

Updated: Jan 03, 2019
  • Author: John L Brusch, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

PVE accounts for 10-20% of cases of IE. Eventually, 5% of mechanical and bioprosthetic valves become infected. Mechanical valves are more likely to be infected within the first 3 months of implantation, and, after 1 year, bioprosthetic valves are more likely to be infected. The valves in the mitral valve position are more susceptible than those in the aortic areas. [11]

Early PVE occurs within 60 days of valve implantation. Traditionally, coagulase-negative staphylococci, gram-negative bacilli, and Candida species have been the common infecting organisms. Late PVE occurs 60 days or more after valve implantation. Staphylococci, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, and enterococci are the common causative organisms. Recent data suggest that S aureus may now be the most common infecting organism in both early and late PVE. [13]


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