What are risk factors for dissemination of coccidioidomycosis?

Updated: Aug 27, 2019
  • Author: Duane R Hospenthal, MD, PhD, FACP, FIDSA, FASTMH; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Risk factors for dissemination for which treatment should be initiated include the following:

  • Primary infection during infancy

  • Primary infection during pregnancy, especially in the third trimester or immediately postpartum

  • Immunosuppression (eg, patients with HIV/AIDS, transplant recipients, patients receiving high-dose corticosteroids, those receiving anti–tumor necrosis factor [TNF] medications)

  • Chronic debilitation or underlying disease, including diabetes mellitus or preexisting cardiopulmonary disease

  • High inoculum exposures

  • Certain ethnicities, such as Filipino, black, or Hispanic

  • Age greater than 55 years

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