Which factors increase the risk for severe coccidioidomycosis?

Updated: Aug 27, 2019
  • Author: Duane R Hospenthal, MD, PhD, FACP, FIDSA, FASTMH; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Factors associated with increased risk of more severe disease include the following:

  • HIV disease, especially when CD4+ cell counts are < 250/mL

  • Pregnancy; the risk is slightly higher with each progressive trimester

  • Lymphoma

  • Solid organ transplantation

  • Long-term corticosteroid treatment

  • Treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha inhibitors [36]

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