Where is Coccidioides (C immitis and C posadasii) endemic?

Updated: Aug 27, 2019
  • Author: Duane R Hospenthal, MD, PhD, FACP, FIDSA, FASTMH; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Coccidioides (C immitis and C posadasii) is endemic in the soil in certain regions of the Western Hemisphere, almost all of which are located between latitudes 40° north and 40° south. [2, 14, 15] These areas are characterized by semiarid climates with hot summers and alkaline soil.

Although residents of endemic areas are at highest risk for acquiring infection, coccidioidomycosis is being recognized increasingly outside of these areas due to travel, population mobility, immunosuppression, and reactivation. Diagnosis often is delayed in nonendemic areas because coccidioidal infection initially is not considered in the differential diagnosis. [2, 3, 4, 5]

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