What are coxsackieviruses?

Updated: Aug 24, 2018
  • Author: Martha L Muller, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

Coxsackieviruses belong to the family Picornaviridae and the genus Enterovirus, which also includes poliovirus and echovirus. Enteroviruses are among the most common and important human pathogens. Coxsackieviruses share many characteristics with poliovirus. With control of poliovirus infections in much of the world, more attention has been focused on understanding the nonpolio enteroviruses such as coxsackievirus.

Coxsackieviruses are nonenveloped viruses with linear single-stranded RNA. Coxsackieviruses are divided into group A and group B viruses based on early observations of their pathogenicity in mice. Group A coxsackieviruses were noted to cause a flaccid paralysis, which was caused by generalized myositis, while group B coxsackieviruses were noted to cause a spastic paralysis due to focal muscle injury and degeneration of neuronal tissue. At least 23 serotypes (1-22, 24) of group A and 6 serotypes (1-6) of group B are recognized.


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