What are the most common causative organisms of cellulitis in infants and children?

Updated: Jun 14, 2019
  • Author: Thomas E Herchline, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

In individuals with normal host defenses, the most common causative organisms are group A streptococci (GAS) and S aureus. Group B Streptococcus cellulitis occurs in infants younger than 6 months, because their immune responses are not fully developed, and it may also be seen in adults with comorbidities such as diabetes or liver disease. For infantile cellulitis, presentations may include sepsis. [24]

Historically, facial cellulitis in children was frequently associated with H influenzae type B and S pneumoniae, but this is now generally considered a rarity because of routine H influenza e type B and pneumococcal vaccines. However, a study of 500,000 pediatric hospitalizations demonstrated that, although bacterial meningitis and epiglottitis diminished as a result of immunization for H influenzae type B and S pneumoniae, the incidence of facial cellulitis was unaffected. [25] Nonetheless, another study noted that 96% of the serotypes that cause facial cellulitis were included in the heptavalent-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine that was routinely used at the time of the study.


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