How is endocarditis manifested in cat scratch disease (CSD)?

Updated: Feb 16, 2021
  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Bartonella species account for approximately 3% of all cases of endocarditis. Currently, many cases of blood culture–negative endocarditis are believed to be the result of infection with Bartonella species. Bartonella endocarditis should be considered in patients with manifestations of endocarditis and negative blood culture results who have regular contact with cats. [51] Possible risk factors include alcoholism, homelessness, and body louse infestation.

Some cases diagnosed as Chlamydia endocarditis also are likely to be caused by Bartonella species because of the high prevalence of cross-reacting antibodies.

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