Which medications in the drug class Antitoxins are used in the treatment of Botulism?

Updated: Feb 15, 2019
  • Author: Kirk M Chan-Tack, MD; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD  more...
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Answer

Antitoxins

These agents are essential in the treatment of foodborne botulism and wound botulism. Heptavalent antitoxin (toxins A through G) is available at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC phone number is (770) 488-7100. Twenty percent of patients experience some degree of serum sickness or hypersensitivity reaction, and anaphylaxis can also occur. Patients who react to a test dose must be desensitized. Because of the risk of adverse reactions, prophylactic antitoxin is not recommended in patients who are exposed to botulism toxin but who have no symptoms. These patients may undergo gastric lavage or induced vomiting in an attempt to eliminate the toxin prior to absorption.

Botulinum antitoxin, heptavalent (HBAT)

Antitoxin indicated for naturally occurring noninfant botulism. Equine-derived antitoxin that elicits passive antibody (ie, immediate immunity) against Clostridium botulinum toxins A, B, C, D, E, F, and G.

Each 20-mL vial contains equine-derived antibody to the 7 known botulinum toxin types (A through G) with the following nominal potency values: 7500 U anti-A, 5500 U anti-B, 5000 U anti-C, 1000 U anti-D, 8500 U anti-E, 5000 U anti-F, and 1000 U anti-G.

Replaces licensed bivalent botulinum antitoxin AB (BAT-AB) and investigational monovalent botulinum antitoxin E (BAT-E). To obtain, contact CDC Emergency Operations Center; telephone: (770) 488-7100. Product to be stored in Strategic National Stockpile for emergency preparedness and responses.


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