Which neurologic disorders are associated with HIV infection?

Updated: Jan 02, 2020
  • Author: Robert J Carpenter, DO, FACP; Chief Editor: John Bartlett, MD  more...
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Aseptic meningitis can be observed in all but the very late stages of HIV infection. This suggests that aseptic meningitis in the setting of HIV infection is an immune-mediated disease. Aseptic meningitis due to HIV infection usually resolves spontaneously within 2-4 weeks. Signs and symptoms may persist long-term in some patients.

Through unknown mechanisms, HIV infection can mimic Guillain-Barré syndrome (acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy).

Mononeuritis multiplex, a necrotizing arteritis of peripheral nerves, is another autoimmune peripheral neuropathy observed in patients infected with HIV.

Zidovudine can cause myopathy; this is often reversible once the drug is discontinued. HIV infection can also cause myopathy by direct damage to the muscle cells. The exact mechanism has not yet been elucidated.

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