Which neurologic disorders are associated with HIV infection?

Updated: Jan 02, 2019
  • Author: Robert J Carpenter, DO, AAHIVS, FACP; Chief Editor: John Bartlett, MD  more...
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Answer

Answer

Aseptic meningitis can be observed in all but the very late stages of HIV infection. This suggests that aseptic meningitis in the setting of HIV infection is an immune-mediated disease. Aseptic meningitis due to HIV infection usually resolves spontaneously within 2-4 weeks. Signs and symptoms may persist long-term in some patients.

Through unknown mechanisms, HIV infection can mimic Guillain-Barré syndrome (acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy).

Mononeuritis multiplex, a necrotizing arteritis of peripheral nerves, is another autoimmune peripheral neuropathy observed in patients infected with HIV.

Zidovudine can cause myopathy; this is often reversible once the drug is discontinued. HIV infection can also cause myopathy by direct damage to the muscle cells. The exact mechanism has not yet been elucidated.


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