Which opportunistic infections and conditions are seen in patients with AIDS?

Updated: Jul 01, 2019
  • Author: Nicholas John Bennett, MBBCh, PhD, MA(Cantab), FAAP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

Opportunistic infections and conditions include the following ( * added in the 1993 AIDS surveillance case definition):

  • Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs

  • Candidiasis, esophageal

  • Cervical cancer, invasive*

  • Coccidioidomycosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary

  • Cryptococcosis, extrapulmonary

  • Cryptosporidiosis, chronic intestinal (duration >1 mo)

  • Cytomegalovirus disease (other than liver, spleen, or nodes)

  • Cytomegalovirus retinitis (with vision loss)

  • Encephalopathy, HIV-related

  • Herpes simplex: chronic ulcer or ulcers (duration >1 mo) or bronchitis, pneumonitis, or esophagitis

  • Histoplasmosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary

  • Isosporiasis, chronic intestinal (duration >1 mo)

  • Kaposi sarcoma

  • Lymphoma, Burkitt (or equivalent term)

  • Lymphoma, immunoblastic (or equivalent term)

  • Lymphoma, primary, of the brain

  • Mycobacterium avium complex or Mycobacterium kansasii infection, disseminated or extrapulmonary

  • M tuberculosis infection, any site (pulmonary* or extrapulmonary)

  • Mycobacterium infection with other species or unidentified species, disseminated or extrapulmonary

  • Pneumocystis pneumonia

  • Pneumonia, recurrent*

  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

  • Salmonella septicemia, recurrent

  • Toxoplasmosis of the brain

  • Wasting syndrome due to HIV infection

Although malaria is not typically considered an opportunistic infection, its incidence was found to be significantly higher among children in Tanzania that were perinatally infected with HIV than those without HIV infection. [69] This was true for physician-diagnosed clinical malaria, probable malaria involving laboratory testing for parasitemia as well as malaria that was confirmed by blood smear.

There also appears to be an increased rate of anal cancer in high-risk groups (in particular, men who have sex with men). This is unsurprising considering the link between anal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV), and the fact that cervical cancer, also caused by HPV, is considered an AIDS-defining condition. [70]


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