What is the pathophysiology of acquired factor X deficiency?

Updated: Mar 23, 2018
  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Perumal Thiagarajan, MD  more...
  • Print
Answer

Acquired factor X deficiency has a variety of possible etiologies. Because factor X is synthesized in the liver, severe hepatic disease can have a dramatic impact on protein levels. Vitamin K deficiency can also result in decreased factor X levels. In general, liver disease and insufficient vitamin K levels produce deficiencies of several clotting factors, not just factor X.

Vitamin K is produced by enteric flora, and vitamin K levels can be reduced by intestinal malabsorption, bile duct obstruction, or antibiotic administration. Vitamin K deficiency can also be iatrogenically induced by the administration of propylthiouracil or vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin. Vitamin K deficiency can also be observed in neonates.

Acquired factor X deficiency has been reported in association with a number of other medical conditions. Factor X deficiency occurs in an estimated 8% of patients with amyloidosis, including immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis. [10, 25, 26, 27] Factor X binds to deposited amyloid fibrils and has a shortened half-life in the plasma. [28, 29]

Factor X deficiency has also been reported in association with myeloma, presumably because of binding of the protein to circulating light chains. [30] Acquired factor X deficiency has also been reported in association with leukemia and other neoplastic processes. [31, 32]


Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!