What causes variation in blood glucose, and what is the relationship between glucose metabolism and coagulation factors?

Updated: Jul 22, 2021
  • Author: Setu K Patolia, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Sridevi Devaraj, PhD, DABCC, FAACC, FRSC, CCRP  more...
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Answer

Answer

In healthy individuals, blood glucose levels are carefully maintained in a narrow range secondary to a complex interplay between several hormones, which act on biochemical reactions such as glycolysis and glycogenolysis. Therefore, variation of blood glucose is often a manifestation of illness, as in the occurrence of hypoglycemia in liver failure. There is also interest in the observation that hyperglycemia may be a pro-inflammatory condition that promotes leukocytosis. [9]

Looking to elucidate a possible link between diabetes and venous thrombosis, a study by van der Toom et al indicated that irregularities in glucose metabolism are associated with increased coagulation factor levels. The investigators reported that compared with study subjects with normal glucose metabolism, individuals with impaired or high fasting glucose or with diabetes mellitus demonstrated greater mean levels of factors VIII, IX, and XI. The differences in these factor levels were largest between persons with high fasting glucose and those with normal glucose metabolism. [10]

A study by Itoh et al indicated that the risk of colorectal cancer rises in correlation with increases in fasting plasma glucose. The hazard ratios for colorectal cancer in persons with a fasting plasma glucose level of 100-109 mg/dL, 110-125 mg/dL, or 126 mg/dL or above were 1.10, 1.24, and 1.36. [11]


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