What causes secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP)?

Updated: Dec 18, 2019
  • Author: Rodolfo Laucirica, MD; Chief Editor: Philip T Cagle, MD  more...
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Secondary PAP is associated with various underlying diseases. These include various infections, hematologic malignancies, inorganic dust exposure (silica, aluminum, or titanium), and immunodeficiency states such as infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and lung transplantation. [16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23] Less common causes include Fanconi anemia, lysinuric protein intolerance, and surfactant protein B deficiency. [24, 25, 26]

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