What are survival rates of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) following transplantation?

Updated: Feb 20, 2020
  • Author: Karen Seiter, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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In the GOELAL02 study, patients with any high-risk feature (age >35 y, non–T-ALL, WBC >30,000, adverse cytogenetics: t[9;22], t[4;11], or t[1;19], or no CR after induction) received either allogeneic or autologous stem cell transplantation. For patients younger than 50 years, the 6-year overall survival rate was superior in patients receiving allogeneic transplantation (75%) compared with those receiving autologous transplantation (40%). [63]

The United Kingdom Medical Research Council Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia joint trial with the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (MRC UKALL XII/ECOG E2993) demonstrated that matched related allogeneic transplantations for ALL in first complete CR provide the most potent antileukemic therapy and considerable survival benefit for standard-risk patients. A donor versus no-donor analysis showed that Ph-negative patients with a donor had a 5-year improved overall survival, 53% versus 45% (P = 0.01), and that the relapse rate was significantly lower. [66]

The survival difference was significant in standard-risk patients but not in high-risk patients with a high nonrelapse mortality rate in the high-risk donor group. Patients randomized to chemotherapy had a higher 5-year overall survival (46%) than those randomized to autologous transplantation (37%). [66] However, the transplantation-related mortality for high-risk older patients was unacceptably high and abrogated the reduction in relapse risk.

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