What are survival rates of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT)?

Updated: Oct 26, 2020
  • Author: Karen Seiter, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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In a prospective, nonrandomized trial, the Bordeaux, Grenoble, Marseille, Toulouse group found that the 3-year probability of disease-free survival was significantly higher with allogeneic BMT (68%) than with autologous BMT (26%). [65] No benefit was observed with the addition of recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2) after autologous BMT.

In the French Group on Therapy for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia study, subjects aged 15-40 years whose disease was in CR and who had a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-compatible sibling donor underwent allogeneic BMT. [66] The other subjects were randomized to receive autologous BMT or chemotherapy. Overall, no difference in was observed in 5-year survival between the groups. [66]

However, when only high-risk patients were considered (ie, Ph+, null ALL; > 35 y; white blood cell [WBC] count > 30,000/µL; or time to CR > 4 wk), allogeneic BMT proved superior to autologous BMT or chemotherapy with respect to overall survival rates (44% vs 20%) and disease-free survival rates (39% vs 14%). [66] Other phase 2 studies have confirmed a benefit for high-risk patients who undergo allogeneic BMT, with as many as 50% achieving long-term remissions.

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