What are the signs and symptoms of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)?

Updated: Jul 02, 2021
  • Author: Karen Seiter, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Signs and symptoms of ALL include the following:

  • Fever
  • Signs and symptoms of anemia, such as pallor, fatigue, dizziness, palpitations, cardiac flow murmur, and dyspnea with even mild exertion
  • Bleeding
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) at diagnosis (about 10% of cases)
  • Blood clots
  • Palpable lymphadenopathy
  • Symptoms related to a large mediastinal mass (eg, shortness of breath), particularly with T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL)
  • Bone pain (can be severe and often atypical)
  • Left upper quadrant fullness and early satiety due to  splenomegaly (about 10% of cases)
  • Symptoms of leukostasis (eg, respiratory distress, altered mental status)
  • Renal failure in patients with a high tumor burden
  • Infections, including pneumonia
  • Petechiae (particularly on lower extremities) and ecchymoses
  • Rashes from skin infiltration with leukemic cells

See Presentation for more detail.

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