What are the signs and symptoms of acute retroviral syndrome in HIV infection?

Updated: Sep 07, 2018
  • Author: Jason F Okulicz, MD, FACP, FIDSA; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
  • Print
Answer

Answer

Acute retroviral syndrome was first described in 1985 by Cooper and colleagues as an acute mononucleosislike syndrome. [11]

The incidence is not precisely known. A prospective study of homosexual men showed a 55% incidence in 22 subjects who became antibody-positive compared with 21% in 44 nonconverting control subjects. [12] The onset of illness is between 2 and 6 weeks after viral transmission and is believed to correlate with peak viremia, often in excess of 1 million viral copies/mL. Symptoms and associated frequency are as follows:

  • Fever: 96%

  • Lymphadenopathy: 74%

  • Rash: 70%

  • Myalgia or arthralgia: 54%

  • Diarrhea: 32%

  • Headache: 32%

  • Nausea and vomiting: 27%

  • Hepatosplenomegaly: 14%

  • Weight loss: 13%

  • Thrush: 12%

  • Neurologic symptoms: 12%

  • Oral or genital ulcers: 5%-20% [3]


Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!