Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Sickle Cell Anemia?

Updated: May 12, 2021
  • Author: Joseph E Maakaron, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Answer

Antibiotics

The absence of a spleen inhibits immunological functions of clearing bacteria from the blood and synthesizing antibodies leading to an increased frequency of infetion. These agents are used for treatment of suspected or confirmed infections.

Cefuroxime (Ceftin, Zinacef)

Cefuroxime is a second-generation cephalosporin that maintains the gram-positive activity of first-generation cephalosporins and adds activity against Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. The condition of the patient, severity of infection, and susceptibility of the microorganism should determine proper dose and route of administration.

Amoxicillin and clavulanate (Augmentin, Augmentin XR, Augmentin ES-600)

This drug combination extends the antibiotic spectrum of this penicillin to include bacteria normally resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. It is indicated for skin and skin structure infections caused by beta-lactamase-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

Penicillin VK

Penicillin inhibits the biosynthesis of cell wall mucopeptide.

Cefixime (Suprax)

Cefixime inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to one or more of the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs); thus inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis. Bacteria lyse due to ongoing activity of cell wall autolytic enzymes (autolysins and murein hydrolases) while cell wall assembly is arrested.

Ceftriaxone

A third-generation cephalosporin, inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to one or more PBPs; downstream inhibits cell wall biosynthesis via inhibition the final steps of peptidoglycan synthesis along the bacterial cell walls.

Azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax)

Azithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that is useful for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in sickle cell disease, as an adjunct to a cephalosporin to cover Chlamydia or Mycoplasma infections.

Cefaclor

A second-generation cephalosporin, cefaclor is indicated for infections caused by susceptible gram-positive cocci and gram-negative rods.

Clarithromycin (Biaxin, Biaxin XL)

Clarithromycin exerts its antibacterial action by binding to 50S ribosomal subunit resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis. The 14-OH clarithromycin metabolite is twice as active as the parent compound against certain organisms.


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