Which medications in the drug class Opioid Analgesics are used in the treatment of Sickle Cell Anemia?

Updated: May 12, 2021
  • Author: Joseph E Maakaron, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Answer

Opioid Analgesics

Opioid analgesics are used to control acute crisis and chronic pain.

Oxycodone and aspirin (Percodan)

This drug combination is indicated for the relief of moderate to severe pain. Oxycodone binds to opiate receptors in the CNS inhibiting the ascending pain pathways, altering pain response and perception. Aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation; has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.

Methadone (Dolophine, Methadose)

Methadone is used in the management of severe pain. It inhibits ascending pain pathways, diminishing the perception of and response to pain.

Morphine sulfate (Duramorph, Infumorph, MorphaBond ER, MS Contin, Kadian)

An opioid analgesic, morphine interacts with endorphin receptors in the CNS, inhibiting the pain pathways, altering pain response and perception.

Oxycodone and acetaminophen (Percocet, Endocet, Primlev)

This drug combination is indicated for the relief of moderate to severe pain. It is the drug of choice for patients who are hypersensitive to aspirin.

Fentanyl (Sublimaze PF, Duragesic, Abstral, Actiq, Fentora)

A synthetic opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu receptor agonist, fentanyl is 50-100 times more potent than morphine. Unlike morphine, fentanyl is not commonly associated with histamine release.

Nalbuphine

An opioid agonist/antagonist, nalbuphine stimulates kappa opioid receptor in the CNS, which causes inhibition of ascending pain pathways. An antagonist at the opioid mu receptors, it is useful for moderate-to-severe pain in sickle cell disease.

Codeine

Codeine binds to opiate receptors in the CNS, causing inhibition of ascending pain pathways, altering perception and response to pain.

Codeine/acetaminophen (Tylenol with Codeine #3,Tylenol with Codeine #4 )

This combination is a mild narcotic analgesic. Acetaminophen believed to inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins in the CNS, and peripherally block pain impulse generation. Codeine binds to in the CNS; causing inhibition of ascending pain pathways, altering pain perception and response.


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