What is the role of transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography in the workup of sickle cell disease (SCD)?

Updated: May 12, 2021
  • Author: Joseph E Maakaron, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Measurement of blood flow velocity by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) has proved a good predictor of stroke risk. Although overall, children with SCD have a stroke risk of 1% per year, those with high cerebral blood flow velocities (time-averaged mean velocity >200 cm/s) have stroke rates of greater than 10% a year. TCD surveillance remains the gold standard for stroke risk prediction in children with TCD; annual TCD screening from 2 to 16 years of age has been recommended. [45]

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