Which physical findings are characteristic of pulmonary embolism in patients with protein S deficiency?

Updated: Jan 03, 2021
  • Author: Mohammad Muhsin Chisti, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Perumal Thiagarajan, MD  more...
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  • Some patients may have associated or isolated pulmonary embolism and may experience dyspnea, chest pain, syncope, or cardiac palpitations; dyspnea is the most frequent symptom of pulmonary embolism, and tachypnea is the most frequent sign

  • Some patients with massive pulmonary embolism can present with syncope or cyanosis

  • Classic pleuritic chest pain, cough, or hemoptysis suggests an embolism with pleural involvement

  • Acute right-sided heart failure occurs rarely and is associated with massive embolus

  • Findings of right ventricular dysfunction include bulging neck veins, a left parasternal lift, and an accentuated pulmonic component of the second heart sound; these findings are not specific for pulmonary embolism

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