What are the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) guidelines for the diagnosis evaluation of multiple myeloma (MM)?

Updated: May 11, 2021
  • Author: Dhaval Shah, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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The EHA-ESMO guidelines consider the following tests obligatory for the diagnosis of multiple myeloma [132] :

  • Blood count and smear
  • Serum electrophoresis and immunofixation
  • Serum FLC assay
  • Serum immunoglobulin levels
  • Kidney and liver function tests
  • Serum calcium
  • Serum LDH and beta-2 microglobulin
  • 24-hr urine for assessment of proteinuria and light--chain proteinuria
  • Urine electrophoresis and immunofixation
  • Bone marrow cytology and biopsy to confirm plasmacytosis and monoclonality
  • Bone marrow next-generation flow cytometry or next-generation sequencing to detect clonal plasma cells
  • Bone marrow karyotype and FISH for detection of del17p, t(4;14), t(14;16), ampl 1q/gain 1q, t(11;14)
  • Whole-body low-dose CT; whole-body MRI if CT is negative

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