How is active multiple myeloma (MM) differentiated from smoldering multiple myeloma (MM)?

Updated: Jul 15, 2019
  • Author: Dhaval Shah, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Answer

The National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends whole-body or skeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with contrast, or whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to differentiate active from smoldering MM. [2]

Other problems to be considered

Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a rare syndrome consisting of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein deviations, and skin changes.

Amyloidosis is often secondary to MM, but it may develop without MM. Patients with amyloidosis typically lack sufficient numbers of plasma cells in the bone marrow or sufficiently high levels of M protein to meet the diagnostic criteria for MM.


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