What is smoldering multiple myeloma (MM)?

Updated: Jul 15, 2019
  • Author: Dhaval Shah, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Answer

Smoldering MM is present when the serum M protein concentration is > 3 g/dL or the bone marrow plasma cell concentration is > 10% but there is no evidence of end-organ damage. Risk factors for progression of SMM to MM include any of the following:

  • M protein concentration >3 g/dL
  • Abnormal FLC ratio
  • Bone marrow plasma cell concentration >10%

The time to progression decreases with increasing numbers of risk factors, as follows:

  • One factor: 10 years
  • Two factors: 5.1 years
  • Three factors: 1.9 years

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