What are environmental or occupational risk factors for multiple myeloma (MM)?

Updated: May 11, 2021
  • Author: Dhaval Shah, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Case-controlled studies have suggested a significant risk of developing MM in individuals with significant occupational exposures in the agriculture, food, and petrochemical industries. An increased risk has been reported in farmers, especially in those who use herbicides and insecticides (eg, chlordane), and in people exposed to benzene and other organic solvents. There is conflicting evidence regarding long-term (>20 y) exposure to hair dyes and possible increased risk of developing MM. [16]

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