Which substances can cause methemoglobinemia?

Updated: Dec 09, 2018
  • Author: Mary Denshaw-Burke, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
  • Print
Answer

Other substances that can cause methemoglobinemia include the following:

  • Copper sulfate
  • Organic compounds – Sodium chlorite, [36] ammonium carbonate (smelling salts), [37] and 2,4-dinitrophenol (weight loss agent) [38]
  • Recreational drugs – Phenylamine (psychoactive stimulant), [39] cocaine, [40] and volatile nitrates [41]
  • Antimalarials – Primaquine, [42] chloroquine, [43] and sitamaquine [44]
  • Antineoplastic agents – Cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, flutamide, and 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone [45]
  • Analgesics and antipyretics – Acetaminophen, acetanilide, phenacetin, and celecoxib
  • Zopiclone [46]
  • Herbicides and insecticides – Paraquat (dipyridylium), indoxacarb, [47] and aluminum phosphide [48]
  • Methylene blue (high dose or in G6PD-deficient patients [49] )
  • Indigo carmine
  • Resorcinol
  • Metoclopramide [50]
  • Antibiotics – Sulfonamides, nitrofurans, and para-aminosalicylic acid
  • Industrial/household agents – Aniline dyes, nitrobenzene, naphthalene (moth balls), aminophenol, and nitroethane (nail polish remover)

Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!