What is Bartter syndrome and how does it cause hypomagnesemia?

Updated: Oct 30, 2020
  • Author: Tibor Fulop, MD, PhD, FACP, FASN; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Answer

The electrical gradient in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (TAL) generated by the active transport of sodium, potassium, and chloride by Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) aids in the reabsorption of magnesium. Mutation in NKCC2 is seen in antenatal Bartter syndrome and leads to renal magnesium wasting and hypomagnesemia. Classic Bartter syndrome is caused by mutations in CLCNKB ’s encoding of the basolaterally located renal chloride channel ClC-Kb, which mediates chloride efflux from the tubular epithelial cell to the interstitium along the TAL and DCT. It is unknown how hypomagnesemia is produced in this syndrome.


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