What are the typical features of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

Updated: Nov 13, 2018
  • Author: Shabir Bhimji, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Yasmine S Ali, MD, FACC, FACP, MSCI  more...
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The four features typical of tetralogy of Fallot include right ventricular (RV) outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO) (infundibular stenosis), ventricular septal defect (VSD), aorta dextroposition (overriding aorta), and right ventricular hypertrophy. Occasionally, a few children also have an atrial septal defect (ASD), which makes up the pentad of Fallot. The basic pathology of tetralogy is due to the underdevelopment of the RV infundibulum, which results in an anterior-leftward malalignment of the infundibular septum. This malalignment determines the degree of RVOTO.

The clinical features of tetralogy of Fallot are generally typical, and a preliminary clinical diagnosis can almost always be made. Because most infants with this disorder require surgery, it is fortunate that the availability of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), cardioplegia, and surgical techniques is now well established. Most surgical series report excellent clinical results with low morbidity and mortality rates.

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