Which socioeconomic factors may increase the risk for lymphoblastic lymphoma?

Updated: Sep 10, 2019
  • Author: Joseph M Tuscano, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Population-based attributes for Social Exclusion Index (SEI) and household size may be useful surrogate markers of early exposure to childhood infections, which has been found to decrease the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). [8] In a Brazilian study in 96 districts of Sao Paolo, investigators evaluated 507 children aged 0-14 years who were diagnosed with ALL between 1997 and 2002 and found a correlation between the children's SEI categories—based on the district of residence at diagnosis, as well as four categories from high to low that included the indicators of poverty, employment, inequality, education, and violence—and the districts of residence and areas in which there were high percentages of crowded households. Their findings included the following [8] :

  • The age-adjusted incidence rate was 3.68/100,000 for males and 2.87/100,000 for females.

  • Children who lived in areas with the lowest SEIs had a significantly lower risk of ALL compared with those living in the wealthiest districts.

  • There was a strong correlation between SEI and crowding: Lower incidence rates of childhood ALL were noted in areas with high percentages of households with >7 persons (5.7% or greater) compared with those in which there had percentages of 2.2% or less.

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