How is non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) treated?

Updated: Feb 25, 2021
  • Author: Sanjay Vinjamaram, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Answer

The treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) varies greatly, depending on the following factors:

  • Tumor stage
  • Phenotype (B-cell, T-cell or natural killer [NK] cell/null-cell)
  • Histology (ie, low, intermediate, or high grade)
  • Symptoms
  • Performance status
  • Patient age
  • Comorbidities

Most of the chemotherapy for NHL, whether combination or single-drug, can be administered in an outpatient setting, at an infusion clinic. In the infusion clinic, specially trained oncology nurses, who are supervised by oncologists, administer the chemotherapy. Growth factor support (eg, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor [GCSF], granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor [GM-CSF], erythropoietin) is also administered in an outpatient treatment setting.

Infusional chemotherapy (eg, infusional cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide [CDE], which should be administered continuously for 4 days) should be administered as inpatient treatment. High-dose chemotherapy and bone marrow and/or stem cell transplantation are administered in an inpatient setting of a tertiary hospital with an approved transplant center.

For the initial treatment of patients with intermediate- or high-grade lymphoma and patients with bulky disease, an inpatient setting is recommended in order to monitor for tumor lysis syndrome and to manage appropriately.

Admit patients with NHL for complications of disease progression (eg, pain control for intractable pain) or adverse effects from chemotherapy (eg, dehydration secondary to diarrhea, vomiting requiring IV hydration, severe mucositis). Patients with fever during neutropenia should be admitted for broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy.

Ensure that patients understand their diagnosis, treatment options, and prognosis and complications of therapy, which, in rare occasions, may result in a fatal event (eg, death secondary to severe infection unresponsive to antimicrobial therapy, in a patient with severe neutropenia). Start the treatment only after the patient has signed an informed consent form.


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