How is non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) staged?

Updated: Feb 25, 2021
  • Author: Sanjay Vinjamaram, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Answer

Staging is important in selecting a treatment and determining prognosis. CT scans of the neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis, as well as bilateral bone marrow aspirate and biopsy, are necessary to stage the lymphoma. Noncontiguous lymph node involvement, uncommon in Hodgkin disease, is more common among patients with NHL.

The Ann Arbor staging system is the most commonly used staging system for patients with NHL. This system divides NHL into 4 stages, as follows:

  • Stage I NHL involves a single lymph node region (I) or localized involvement of a single extralymphatic organ or site (IE)

  • Stage II NHL involves 2 or more lymph node regions on the same side of the diaphragm (II) or localized involvement of a single associated extralymphatic organ in addition to criteria for stage II (IIE)

  • Stage III involves lymph node regions on both sides of the diaphragm (III) that also may be accompanied by localized involvement of an extralymphatic organ or site (IIIE), spleen (IIIS), or both (IIISE)

  • Stage IV represents disseminated or multifocal involvement of one or more extralymphatic sites with or without associated lymph node involvement or isolated extralymphatic organ involvement with distant (nonregional) nodal involvement

In addition to the 4 stage designations, subscript letters designate involvement of extralymphatic organs, as follows:

  • L - lung

  • H - Liver

  • P - Pleura

  • B - Bone

  • M - Bone marrow

  • D - Skin

  • E - Extranodal lymphoid malignancies in tissues that are separate from but near the major lymphatic aggregates

The stages can also be appended by A or B designations. Patients with A disease do not have systemic symptoms. The B designation is applied in patients with any of the following symptoms:

  • Unexplained loss of more than 10% of body weight in the 6 months before diagnosis

  • Unexplained fever with temperature above 38°C

  • Drenching night sweats


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