What is the role of CAR T-cell therapy in the treatment of diffuse large cell lymphoma?

Updated: Jun 12, 2019
  • Author: Shipra Gandhi, MBBS; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Answer

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy utilizes each patient’s own T cells, extracted by leukapheresis. The T cells are sent to a processing facility, where they are genetically engineered with CD19 receptors that seek out cancer cells; the T-cell population is then expanded and infused back into the patient, who has undergone conditioning chemotherapy in preparation for the infusion.

In October 2017, FDA approved axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta) for treatment of large B-cell lymphoma after at least two other kinds of therapy have failed. Approved uses include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, high-grade B-cell lymphoma, and DLBCL arising from follicular lymphoma. Axicabtagene ciloleucel is not indicated for the treatment of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma. [142]

Approval was based on the results from the ZUMA-1 study, an open-label, multicenter trial enrolling of 111 patients from 22 institutions. Patients in ZUMA-1 received the target dose of axicabtagene ciloleucel (2 x 106 cells/kg) after low-dose conditioning with cyclophosphamide and fludarabine for 3 days. The modified intention-to-treat population involved 101 patients who received axicabtagene ciloleucel. In adults with relapsed/refractory DLBCL, the response rates were approximately 60-80%, with complete responses seen in 40-70% of patients. At 6-month follow-up, 40% of patients had maintained their complete response. The trial had a median survival follow-up of 8.7 months. [143]

In May 2018, tisagenlecleucel gained approval for adults with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma (r/rDLBCL), including DLBCL not otherwise specified, high grade B-cell lymphoma, and DLBCL arising from follicular lymphoma after ≥ 2 lines of systemic therapy. [144]

Approval was based on the single-arm, open-label, multicenter, phase 2 JULIET trial in adults with relapsed or refractory DLBCL and DLBCL after transformation from follicular lymphoma. Eligible patients must have been treated with at least 2 prior lines of therapy, including an anthracycline and rituximab, or relapsed following ASCT. Patients received a single infusion of tisagenlecleucel following completion of lymphodepleting chemotherapy.

The ORR for the 68 evaluable patients was 50% (95% CI: 37.6, 62.4) with a CR rate of 32% (95% CI: 21.5, 44.8). With a median follow-up time of 9.4 months, the duration of response (DOR) was longer in patients with a best overall response of CR, as compared to a best overall response of partial response (PR). Among patients achieving CR, the estimated median DOR was not reached (95% CI: 10.0 months, not estimable [NE]). The estimated median response duration among patients in PR was 3.4 months (95% CI: 1.0, NE). [145, 146]

For more information, see Cancer Immunotherapy with Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cells


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