What are the effects of a nonhemoglobin deficiency in iron deficiency anemia?

Updated: Sep 07, 2019
  • Author: James L Harper, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Increasing evidence suggests that deficiency or dysfunction of nonhemoglobin proteins has deleterious effects. These include muscle dysfunction, pagophagia, dysphagia with esophageal webbing, poor scholastic performance, altered resistance to infection, and altered behavior.

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