How is immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) managed in children?

Updated: Jan 11, 2020
  • Author: Craig M Kessler, MD, MACP; Chief Editor: Srikanth Nagalla, MBBS, MS, FACP  more...
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Answer

Most children with acute ITP do not require treatment, and thrombocytopenia resolves spontaneously. [7] American Society of Hematology (ASH) guidelines recommend that children who have no bleeding or minor bleeding (eg, cutaneous manifestations such as bruising and petechiae) be managed with observation alone regardless of platelet count. [8] A retrospective review by Schultz et al found that this approach did not lead to an increase in later treatment or an increase in delayed bleeding. [52]

For pediatric patients requiring treatment, ASH suggests a short course of corticosteroids for first-line treatment rather than IVIG or anti-D immunoglobulin. [8]

The ASH guidelines acknowledge the risk of hemolysis with IV RhoD immune globulin (RhIG, anti-D immune) and the black box warning related to fatal intravascular hemolysis, but notes these are rare events. [8]  An advantage of IV RhIG is that if bone marrow aspiration is unacceptable to parents and if the diagnosis of acute ITP is equivocal, IV RhIG is an effective treatment that avoids the problem of a misdiagnosis of acute leukemia because of steroid-related changes in the marrow.

For children or adolescents with ITP who have significant ongoing bleeding despite treatment with IVIG, RhIG, or conventional doses of corticosteroids, ASH suggests a TPO-RA rather than rituximab or splenectomy as second-line treatment. Rituximab may also be considered as an alternative to splenectomy. [8]


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