How does Hodgkin lymphoma (Hodgkin disease) spread?

Updated: Sep 12, 2018
  • Author: Bradley W Lash, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Spread of Hodgkin lymphoma takes place via the lymphatics, hematogenous routes, and direct extension. Contiguous involvement of extranodal sites (eg, involvement of the lung parenchyma due to direct extension of large mediastinal lymphadenopathy) is not considered stage IV disease. Rather, it is designated with the E suffix (ie, IIBE).

Unfavorable factors in Hodgkin lymphoma are discussed under Prognosis.

See also the Medscape article Hodgkin Lymphoma Staging.

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