Which salvage therapy regimens are used in the treatment of multiple myeloma?

Updated: Dec 31, 2018
  • Author: Sara J Grethlein, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Answer

Salvage therapy regimens

If a sustained remission was obtained with initial therapy, then consideration should be given to using it again. Salvage therapy also includes the regimens listed above that were not previously selected, as well as the following:

  • Panobinostat 20 mg PO once every other day for three doses/week (on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 12) of weeks 1 and 2 of each 21-day cycle for eight cycles plus  bortezomib and dexamethasone; consider continuing treatment for an additional eight cycles for patients with clinical benefit, unless they have unresolved severe or medically significant toxicity [35]

  • Lenalidomide 25 mg/day PO on days 1-21 plus dexamethasone 40 mg/day PO on days 1-4, 9-12, and 17-20 of each 28-d cycle for the first four cycles of therapy and then 40 mg/day PO on days 1-4 thereafter, every 28 d, has been approved for patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least one prior treatment

  • Pomalidomide is a thalidomide analogue indicated for patients who have received at least two prior therapies (including lenalidomide and bortezomib) and have disease progression on or within 60 days of completion of the last therapy [36] ; pomalidomide dosage is 4 mg PO QD on days 1-21 of repeated 28-day cycles until disease progression; may be given in combination with dexamethasone

  • Carfilzomib (Kyprolis), a proteasome inhibitor, is indicated as monotherapy, in combination with dexamethasone, or in combination with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma in patients who have received at least 1 prior line of therapy [37, 38, 47]

  • Lenalidomide or thalidomide can be used as single agents in salvage therapy

  • Daratumumab (Darzalex) is an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody. It is indicated as monotherapy for patients who have received at least 3 prior treatments, including a proteasome inhibitor (PI) and an immunomodulatory agent (IMiD), or whose disease is refractory to both a PI and an IMiD; dosage is 16 mg/kg IV infusion once weekly (weeks 1 to 8); reduce frequency to q2wk (weeks 9-24) and ultimately q4wk (week 25 and thereafter) until disease progression [39, 40]

  • Daratumumab is also indicated in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, or bortezomib and dexamethasone, for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least 1 prior therapy; dosage is 16 mg/kg IV infusion once weekly (weeks 1 to 9); reduce frequency to q3wk (weeks 10-24) and ultimately q4wk (week 25 and thereafter) until disease progression [3, 48, 49]

  • Ixazomib (Ninlaro) is a reversible proteasome inhibitor indicated in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone for patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least 1 prior therapy; starting dose is 4 mg PO on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle until disease progression [41]

  • Elotuzumab (Empliciti) is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting SLAMF7 indicated in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone for multiple myeloma in patients who have received 1-3 prior therapies; the dose is 10 mg/kg IV weekly for the first two 28-day cycles, and then 10 mg/kg IV q2wk (on days 1 and 15) [42]

  • Elotuzumab is also indicated in combination with pomalidomide and dexamethasone for MM in patients who have received 2 or more prior therapies including lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor; the dose is 10 mg/kg IV weekly for the first two 28-day cycles, and then 20 mg/kg IV on Day 1 of each cycle starting with cycle 3 [52]


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