How is anal cancer staged?

Updated: Dec 23, 2019
  • Author: Jeffrey B VanDeusen, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: N Joseph Espat, MD, MS, FACS  more...
  • Print
Answer

Answer

The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor/node/metastasis (TNM) classification and staging system for anal cancer are provided below. [1, 2, 3]

Table 1. TNM Classification for Anal Cancer (Open Table in a new window)

Primary tumor (T)

TX

Primary tumor cannot be assessed

T0

No evidence of primary tumor

Tis

High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (previously termed carcinoma in situ, Bowen disease, anal intraepithelial neoplasia II–III, high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia)

T1

Tumor 2 cm or less in greatest dimension

T2

Tumor more than 2 cm but not more than 5 cm in greatest dimension

T3

Tumor more than 5 cm in greatest dimension

T4

Tumor of any size invades adjacent organ(s) (eg, vagina, urethra, bladder); direct invasion of the rectal wall, perirectal skin, subcutaneous tissue, or the sphincter muscle(s) is not classified as T4

Regional lymph nodes (N)

NX

Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed

N0

No regional lymph node metastasis

N1

Metastasis in inguinal, mesorectal, internal iliac, or external iliac nodes

  N1a - Metastasis in inguinal, mesorectal, or internal iliac lymph nodes

  N1b - Metastasis in external iliac lymph nodes

  N1c - Metastasis in external iliac with any N1a nodes

Distant metastasis (M)

M0

No distant metastasis

M1

Distant metastasis


Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!