What is the role of reticulocyte count in the workup of anemia?

Updated: Oct 08, 2018
  • Author: Joseph E Maakaron, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Answer

All patients with reticulocytosis and indirect bilirubinemia have a hemolytic disorder. All patients with sustained reticulocytosis have a hemolytic disorder. Unfortunately, the contrary is not the case, and significant hemolysis can occur without reticulocytosis if the bone marrow is unable to produce cells at an accelerated rate (eg, pernicious anemia, leukemia, aplasia).

A single demonstration of an elevated reticulocyte count is insufficient to establish a diagnosis of hemolysis, because transient reticulocytosis may occur without hemolysis (eg, in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia).

Almost all patients with indirect bilirubinemia have a hemolytic disorder. In adults, the exception is patients with Gilbert disease. These patients can be distinguished from those with hemolytic disorders and those who have no other obvious stigmata of hemolysis (eg, anemia, reticulocytosis, Coombs test) by having the patient fast for 3 days. In Gilbert disease, indirect bilirubin doubles with starvation, whereas in hemolytic disorders, it does not. Once the presence of hemolysis has been established, the etiology of the increased rate of RBC destruction can be sought.


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