What are the signs of menstrual bleeding as the etiology of anemia?

Updated: Nov 26, 2019
  • Author: Joseph E Maakaron, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Menstrual bleeding among healthy females varies monthly from 10-250 mL. Unless the patient observes a change in menses, she relates that menses are normal unless specific questions are asked. The presence of clots, abdominal cramps, excessive gushing of blood upon removal of tampons, the need for both tampons and pads, and the use of an unusual number of pads or tampons can be used to determine if menstrual bleeding may be sufficient to induce iron deficiency anemia.

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