What is the physiologic response to anemia?

Updated: Oct 08, 2018
  • Author: Joseph E Maakaron, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Answer

The physiologic response to anemia varies according to acuity and the type of insult. Gradual onset may allow for compensatory mechanisms to take place. With anemia due to acute blood loss, a reduction in oxygen-carrying capacity occurs along with a decrease in intravascular volume, with resultant hypoxia and hypovolemia. Hypovolemia leads to hypotension, which is detected by stretch receptors in the carotid bulb, aortic arch, heart, and lungs. These receptors transmit impulses along afferent fibers of the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves to the medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex, and pituitary gland.

In the medulla, sympathetic outflow is enhanced, while parasympathetic activity is diminished. Increased sympathetic outflow leads to norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerve endings and discharge of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla. Sympathetic connection to the hypothalamic nuclei increases antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion from the pituitary gland. [3] ADH increases free water reabsorption in the distal collecting tubules. In response to decreased renal perfusion, juxtaglomerular cells in the afferent arterioles release renin into the renal circulation, leading to increased angiotensin I, which is converted by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) to angiotensin II.

Angiotensin II has a potent pressor effect on arteriolar smooth muscle. Angiotensin II also stimulates the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex to produce aldosterone. Aldosterone increases sodium reabsorption from the proximal tubules of the kidney, thus increasing intravascular volume. The primary effect of the sympathetic nervous system is to maintain perfusion to the tissues by increasing systemic vascular resistance (SVR). The augmented venous tone increases the preload and, hence, the end-diastolic volume, which increases stroke volume. Therefore, stroke volume, heart rate, and SVR all are maximized by the sympathetic nervous system. Oxygen delivery is enhanced by the increased blood flow.

In states of hypovolemic hypoxia, the increased venous tone due to sympathetic discharge is thought to dominate the vasodilator effects of hypoxia. Counterregulatory hormones (eg, glucagon, epinephrine, cortisol) are thought to shift intracellular water to the intravascular space, perhaps because of the resultant hyperglycemia. This contribution to the intravascular volume has not been clearly elucidated.


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