Which lab test findings are associated with specific etiologies of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Updated: Jan 31, 2021
  • Author: Luca Cicalese, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: John Geibel, MD, MSc, DSc, AGAF  more...
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Laboratory findings associated with particular disease etiologies include the following:

  • Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)/hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), anti-HCV - Viral hepatitis (current/past)
  • Increased iron saturation (> 50%) - Underlying hemochromatosis
  • Low α1-antitrypsin levels - α1-Antitrypsin deficiency
  • Increased AFP - Levels higher than 400 ng/mL are considered diagnostic with appropriate imaging studies
  • Hypercalcemia - Ectopic parathyroid hormone production is possible in 5-10% of patients with HCC

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