What are the possible complications of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)?

Updated: Jan 31, 2021
  • Author: Luca Cicalese, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: John Geibel, MD, MSc, DSc, AGAF  more...
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Answer

Complications from HCC are those of hepatic failure; death occurs from cachexia, variceal bleeding, or (rarely) tumor rupture and bleeding into the peritoneum. Signs and symptoms of hepatic failure may signify tumor recurrence and/or progression.

Various studies have reported extrahepatic metastasis in up to 30–50% of cases of HCC, with lungs the commonest site, followed by lymph nodes and bones. Unusual extrahepatic metastatic sites include the following [34] :

  • Adrenal glands
  • Peritoneum
  • Diaphragm
  • Soft tissues
  • Brain
  • Skin
  • Oral cavity

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