How is upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in infants treated?

Updated: Dec 19, 2018
  • Author: Wayne Wolfram, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Robert K Minkes, MD, PhD  more...
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Answer

Peptic esophagitis caused by GER is the most common cause of bleeding in this age group. Treatment begins with acid-reducing agents, thickened feeds, upright positioning, and prokinetic agents.

Antireflux procedures are rarely performed to control bleeding but may be necessary to treat complications of GER (eg, apnea, esophageal stricture, lung disease) that are refractory to medical therapy.

Gastritis is primary or secondary in etiology. Primary gastritis is associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and is the most common cause of gastritis in children. Treatment is a combination of H2 blockage, antibiotic therapy, and bismuth.

Secondary gastritis occurs in association with severe systemic illnesses that result in mucosal ischemia and produce diffuse erosive and hemorrhagic gastric mucosa. Correction of the underlying metabolic derangements and acid reduction are successful treatment measures in most patients.


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