How is the cause of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding diagnosed in infants?

Updated: Dec 19, 2018
  • Author: Wayne Wolfram, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Robert K Minkes, MD, PhD  more...
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Diagnostic workup for GER often begins with a barium swallow. Other diagnostic modalities include pH probes, esophagoscopy, esophageal manometry, and nuclear medicine studies.

Gastritis is primary or secondary in etiology. Primary gastritis is associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and is the most common cause of gastritis in children. H pylori is detected using serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, rapid urease testing (CLOtest), or mucosal biopsy.

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